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Later on in Genesis chapter 17 we find God instructing Avraham Abraham concerning circumcision. Avraham did not hesitate to both circumcise himself and the males of his household. Why does Judaism refer to circumcision as a covenant? Let us examine the details. Likewise, there was usually a sign of the covenant being established. This sign, according to ancient Middle Eastern writings, was usually something that either party could carry on their person, such as a stone or other object.
Genesis Rabbah And the man said, “This is now, etc.” (Gen ) R. Judah b. Rabbi said: At first He created her for him and he saw her full of discharge and blood; thereupon He removed her from him and recreated her a second time.
Passover is often described as the holiday of freedom. And in liberal democracies freedom is often misunderstood as the ability to do whatever you like with no oppressive authority telling you what to do. But that is not how the Bible and Judaism define freedom. The Jewish idea of freedom is best summarized by that very famous expression — “Praise the servants of God who are not servants of Pharaoh.
What happened at Mount Sinai? To answer quite simply, the Jewish people — every man, woman and child — had an encounter with God. It was a totally unique event in all of human history. The Bible itself states in Deuteronomy 4:
The First Eve
The attempt is to clarify some of the key elements of the continued interpretive contention with the hope that a proper understanding will not only be elicited, but that such understanding will clarify the malignity of evil itself and to galvanize our understanding of its influence and culpability in the great underlying conflicts which beset our world.
It is also hoped that the reader will not only be stimulated in his own study of Holy Writ, but that he will gain a greater appreciation of it and realize a greater degree of his own appropriation of these oracles of God. Then, the ultimate purpose and hope of this paper is that it might edify believers in their daily life, and, most of all, magnify the glorious anticipation of our Lord’s imminent personal return in these last days.
One of the most fascinating topics to be found in our study of the Bible is that of its record regarding the early earth, that first great era in the history of our world, sometimes referred to as the antediluvian age. It is an age shrouded in mystery and wonder, an age pertaining not only to a lost world but an age separated from us in time by a great dividing epoch of catastrophic world changing events. It is an account of that world of human glory and depravity, and demonic intervention; a world which was totally destroyed in the great judgment of the Flood several thousand years ago, a flood which left our world vastly and permanently different.
Dating creation is the attempt to provide an estimate of the age of Earth or the age of the universe as understood through the origin myths of various religious s traditional beliefs held that Planet Earth, or the entire Universe, was brought into being in a grand creation event by one or more these cultures developed calendars, many began to ponder the question of.
Relationship between the Joseph and Judah narratives[ edit ] Russian icon Literary critics have focused on the relationship between the Judah story in chapter 38, and the Joseph story in chapters 37 and Emerton , Regius Professor of Hebrew at the University of Cambridge , regards the connections as evidence for including chapter 38 in the J corpus , and suggests that the J writer dovetailed the Joseph and Judah traditions.
Fokkelman notes that the “extra attention” for Judah in chapter 38, “sets him up for his major role as the brothers’ spokesman in Genesis Reuben, the eldest, cedes his birthright through sexual misconduct with Jacob’s concubine Bilhah Gen. On the other hand, Judah is praised as “a lion’s whelp” whose brothers “shall bow down before thee,” and “the sceptre shall not depart from Judah” Genesis When Judah suddenly faced the non-Israelite world on its own, it needed a defining and motivating text.
That text was the historical core of the Bible, composed in Jerusalem in the course of the seventh century BCE. And because Judah was the birthplace of ancient Israel’s central scripture, it is hardly surprising that the biblical text repeatedly stresses Judah’s special status from the very beginnings of Israel’s history In classical rabbinical literature , the name is interpreted as a combination of Yahweh and a dalet the letter d ; in Gematria , the dalet has the numerical value 4, which these rabbinical sources argue refers to Judah being Jacob’s fourth son.
Judah was the one who suggested that Joseph be sold, rather than killed.
Blessing of Ephraim & Menashe
It was around this time that the Dutch-Jewish philosopher Benedict Spinoza began to attack this common-held belief about Moses. This led to his eventual excommunication from Judaism by the Rabbinnical authorities some years later. One sources notes that this still unproven theory has garnered a cult-like belief in others, especially non-believers: It is becoming increasingly popular to believe this theory…Numerous commentaries, religious journals, and Web sites consistently promote it.
[Part 1] In Genesis, Enoch is said to have walked with God and ultimately to have been “taken” by him. In Second Temple works such as Jubilees and 1 Enoch, he becomes an immortal figure, identified as “the Son of Man.” Jewish mystical traditions, found in 3 Enoch, identify him as the angel Metatron, who sits on his own celestial throne and is referred to as the “lesser YHWH.”.
A lot of folks have proposed schemes to make the timing make more sense. These create problems, however, with reading the gospel accounts and with what is known from Jewish practice of the Second Temple Period. One neglected cultural detail suggests a simpler answer to this issue. Throughout the Bible, Jews counted time this way: When you offer a sacrifice of peace offerings to the Lord, you shall offer it so that you may be accepted. It shall be eaten the same day you offer it or on the day after, and anything left over until the third day shall be burned up with fire.
But it accords with what they report about his being laid in the tomb right before the Sabbath Mark Understanding how the Jews counted days helps solve one mystery for our logical, Greek-thinking brains. This is actually far more important. Jewish scholar Pinchas Lapide thinks that he did so because of a prophetic promise that Hosea had made centuries earlier: Come, let us return to the Lord; for he has torn us, that he may heal us; he has struck us down, and he will bind us up.
After two days he will revive us; on the third day he will raise us up, that we may live before him. Today might be a terrible day of his anger, but tomorrow would be better, and in not too long, life would seemingly begin again. What wonderful assurance that even when God was angry, he desires to forgive.
Nephilim in Rashi’s commentary
Echoing the Iranian story of Yima, the biblical Enoch morphed into the theologically problematic angel Metatron, and ends up being flogged. Reading the Metatron tradition in light of the Zoroastrian Yima tradition helps us better understand what the rabbis and their contemporary coreligionists were picturing with Enoch-Metatron.
You are that Son of Man who was born for righteousness, and righteousness dwells on you, and the righteousness of the Head of Days will not forsake you 1 Enoch
Devarim (Deuteronomy) Rabbah is made up of 27 homilies, corresponding to the divisions of the book according to the ancient triennial reading cycle. Scholars have dated this text as early as CE and as late as CE. Each homily in Devarim Rabbah addresses a halakhic (legal) question and each generally concludes with a statement about redemption.
They often go well beyond simple interpretation and derive or provide support for halakha. This work is based on pre set assumptions about the sacred and divine nature of the text, and the belief in the legitimacy that accords with rabbinic interpretation. By collecting and compiling these thoughts they could be presented in a manner which helped to refute claims that they were only human interpretations. The argument being that by presenting the various collections of different schools of thought each of which relied upon close study of the text, the growing difference between early biblical law, and its later rabbinic interpretation could be reconciled.
Aggadah Midrashim which seek to explain the non-legal portions of the Hebrew Bible are sometimes referred to as aggadah or haggadah. Aggadic expositors availed themselves of various techniques, including sayings of prominent rabbis. These aggadic explanations could be philosophical or mystical disquisitions concerning angels , demons , paradise , hell , the messiah , Satan , feasts and fasts, parables , legends, satirical assaults on those who practice idolatry , etc.
Some of these midrashim entail mystical teachings. The presentation is such that the Midrash is a simple lesson to the uninitiated, and a direct allusion, or analogy, to a Mystical teaching for those educated in this area. An example of a Midrashic interpretation: And there was evening, and there was morning, the sixth day. Rabbi Nahman said in Rabbi Samuel’s name:
Judah (son of Jacob)
The first Sumerian king Alulim , at Eridu , is described as reigning for 28, years, followed by several later kings of similar periods. In total these antediluvian kings ruled for , years from the time when “the kingship was lowered from heaven” to the time when “the flood” swept over the land. A layer of riverine sediments, radiocarbon dated to ca.
Polychrome pottery from the Jemdet Nasr period — BC was discovered immediately below the Shuruppak flood stratum. The “flood” described in the Sumerian King List, is believed to have a historical basis, and has been dated BC. Instead they believed that these figures were either fabrications, or were based on not literal solar years
May 27, · Among people with a disadvantage or disability, the person with the mildest disadvantage or disability is dominant; even someone with limited talent or ability is considered special by those having no talent or ability.
These are traditions which possess a high degree of historicity which the Synoptics evangelists, who understandably wanted to mark the distinction between the Baptist and Jesus rather than the overlap, chose not to employ. For Dunn, the Gospel of John utilizes traditions which were authentic rather than legendary in character. Dunn notes that the claim in John Furthermore, the portrayal of Jesus in terms of Wisdom and Word was used with language which would resonate meaningfully and favorably in Jewish ears.
Many of the Jewish authorities in his region had put believers in Jesus out of the synagogues. John had hoped that there would be persons similar to Nicodemus John 3 and the blind man John 9 who believed secretly and needed to step out in faith and confess their belief. John is to be viewed, in a sense, as a distinctive contributor. Four particular subheadings are given: The Incarnate Word Dunn begins this section by declaring that it is not enough to point out the Wisdom and Logos language upon which John drew.
This, for Dunn, indicates that the incarnate Word is a revelatory figure of the Father. For Dunn, the repeated assertion that the Son has descended from heaven is an indicator of a commissioning cf. John the Baptist being sent from God — John 1: The opening of heavenly reality gives an opportunity for Jesus to communicate to those on earth who are ready to receive it.